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        Spectrometers Further Application Examples

         Automatic AES has reached a standard at which production analyses with spectrometers are no longer carried out by specialists but can be done by semi-skilled workers. Automation of the entire analytical procedure has developed to an advanced level.

         For a satisfactory analysis it is essential to adhere to specifications for sample-taking, sample preparation and spectrometer manipulation. Only a uniform work cycle allows optimized analysis with good RSD and SR. It has not been thought advisable to incorporate a “cookery book”.

         A complete process description includes sample-taking, preparation, calibration, recalibration and check-samples, measurement conditions, analytical lines, the analysis cycle, analytical data such as RSD, SR, correction of interference, LOD, longterm stability, recalibration procedure etc.

         Such “recipes” exist more often for spectrometers with radiation sources other than AD and SD. Repetition of the processes described is usually successful. For spectrometers with an AD or SD there is still a great deal of empiricism and individual spectrometer design involved but as knowledge advances this will soon improve, at least in the case of SDAR.

         If detailed data are required on a process, laboratories with similar applications should be visited and information obtained there. This will quickly fulfil, or in most cases, destroy cherished hopes and is more instructive than studying large quantities of paper. A warning must be given, however, not to jump to quick conclusions with regard to analytical performance based on the analysis of some samples which have been brought along in qualities for which a spectrometer is properly calibrated.

          The applications presented hereunder are some which have been or are in common practice, and are not carried out with the radiation sources discussed.


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