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        Types of spectrometer samples

        The spectrometer sample is a representative part of the material to be analysed or the reference material.

        The analysis sample may be the actual product to be analysed or a part of this product.

        The reference sample has a known, highly-accurate composition. It is often synthesized from high-purity materials or selected from another homogeneous material and certified. Reference samples can also be used as control samples.

        The calibration sample has its own know, highly accurate composition, preferably a reference sample. For cost reasons, or because no reference samples of specific composition are available, well-analysed production samples may also be used for calibration.

        A recalibration sample should contain as many analytes as possible, in order to determine the small changes in the state of the spectrometer, with as few recalibration samples as possible, at specific time intervals. The sample does not need to reference sample but it must be homogeneous and must not alter with time. The high recalibration sample- used to compensate additive changes in the state of spectrometer – has analyte contents in the lower concentration range for calibration .  Often the blank sample or the pure base metal is used for this low recalibration sample. Often the blank sample or the pure base metal is used for this low recalibration sample.

        The check sample has a composition similar to the analysis sample with very good accuracy and homogeneity, and is used to ascertain drift at certain time intervals. It is also known as a monitor sample.

        The check sample has a composition similar to the analysis sample with very good accuracy and homogeneity, and is used to ascertain drift at certain time intervals. It is also known as a monitor sample.

        The type recalibration sample is a check sample used to recalibrate a certain analytical programme according to certain criteria eg. always before the last pre-tap sample for a melt, or in the event of claims.

        The instrument sample is the sample delivered to spectrometer. It may be the product to be analysed delivered direct but usually it is derived from the product after sample preparation.

        The effective sample is that part of the instrument sample which delivers the analytical signal.

        Sample additions to samples in powder or liquid from are intended to influence the physical properties of the sample in a specific manner.

        Additions of vaporization aids to power samples lead to a lowering of the boiling temperature and promote dissociation in plasma eg. fluorides or chloride.

        Additions of transport aids to powder samples promote transport of the sample material into the plasma by formation in the case of arcs with cup electrodes eg. ammonium chloride or organic substances.

        Additions of nebuliser aids to liquid are used to match viscosity and surface tension eg. detergents.

        Additions of excitation aids to liquids are used to match viscosity and surface tension eg. detergents.

        Addition of spectrochemical buffers to powder samples suppress ionization and thus promote excitation of certain analyte lines eg. alkali compounds.

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